Nobuyoshi Yamabe: "Toyok Caves Revisited"
Toyok is the earliest Buddhist cave site in the Turfan area and has noteworthy mural paintings depicting visualizing monks. They give important clues to the practice of meditation/visualization in this area and to the origin of Chinese visualization texts. Recent excavations of this site have brought out significant new findings. Based on these new findings, I would like to reexamine the significance of the Toyok cave monastery.